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Cancer Diagnose & Treatment

Breast Cancer

About the disease

What Happens In Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is cancer that develops in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer is more common in women than in men. A lump in the breast, bloody flow from the nipple, and changes in the form or texture of the nipple or breast are all signs of breast cancer. Cancer develops when changes in genes that control cell development, known as mutations, occur. Mutations allow cells to divide and replicate in an uncontrollable manner.

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that arises in the cells of the breast. Cancer usually develops in the lobules or ducts of the breast. The glands that create milk are known as lobules, and the ducts that transport the milk from the glands to the nipple are known as ducts. Breast cancer can also develop in the fatty tissue or fibrous connective tissue. Uncontrolled cancer cells frequently penetrate healthy breast tissue and can spread to lymph nodes beneath the arms.


Causes

Fat, connective tissue and thousands of lobules make up a woman’s breast after puberty. Breastfeeding milk is produced by these small glands. Milk travels to the nipple through tiny tubes called ducts. Cancer produces uncontrollable cell proliferation. They do not die at the expected time in their lives. Because the tumour consumes nutrition and energy, it deprives the cells around it, resulting in cancer. Breast cancer is most commonly found in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that provide milk to them. It can then spread to other areas of the body.


Symptoms

Breast cancer may not generate any symptoms in its early stages. Although a tumour may be too small to be felt, mammography might nevertheless reveal an anomaly. The first sign of a tumour is usually a new lump in the breast that wasn’t there before. Not all lumps, however, are cancerous. Breast cancer can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Although many of these symptoms are similar, some are distinct. The following are symptoms of the most frequent breast cancers:

  • A breast lump or tissue thickening that feels different than surrounding tissue and has developed recently
  • Red, pitted skin over your entire breast
  • Breast pain
  • Swelling in all or part of your breast
  • Bloody discharge from your nipple
  • A nipple discharge other than breast milk
  • Peeling, scaling, or flaking of skin on your nipple or breast
  • Inverted nipple
  • A sudden, unexplained change in the shape or size of your breast
  • A lump or swelling under your arm
  • Changes to the appearance of the skin on your breasts

It’s not always the case that having any of these symptoms means you have breast cancer. A benign cyst, for example, can produce pain in your breast or a lump in your breast. Even so, if you discover a lump in your breast or experience other symptoms, you should see your doctor for a thorough examination and testing.


Diagnosis

In addition to a breast exam, your doctor will conduct a full physical examination to establish whether your symptoms are caused by breast cancer or a benign breast ailment. They may also order one or more diagnostic tests to determine the source of your symptoms. The following tests can aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer:

Mammogram: An imaging test called a mammography is the most common approach to view beneath the surface of your breast. Many women in their forties and fifties receive mammograms every year to screen for breast cancer. A mammogram will be requested if your doctor feels you have a tumour or worrisome area. If your mammography reveals an abnormal spot, your doctor may order additional tests.

Ultrasound: A breast ultrasound creates a picture of the tissues deep within your breast using sound waves. Your doctor can use an ultrasound to tell the difference between a solid mass, such as a tumour, and a benign cyst.

Diagnosis

In addition to a breast exam, your doctor will conduct a full physical examination to establish whether your symptoms are caused by breast cancer or a benign breast ailment. They may also order one or more diagnostic tests to determine the source of your symptoms. The following tests can aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer:

Mammogram: An imaging test called a mammography is the most common approach to view beneath the surface of your breast. Many women in their forties and fifties receive mammograms every year to screen for breast cancer. A mammogram will be requested if your doctor feels you have a tumour or worrisome area. If your mammography reveals an abnormal spot, your doctor may order additional tests.

Ultrasound: A breast ultrasound creates a picture of the tissues deep within your breast using sound waves. Your doctor can use an ultrasound to tell the difference between a solid mass, such as a tumour, and a benign cyst.


Treatment

Its treatment is determined by cancer’s stage. Chemotherapy, radiation, hormone treatment, and surgery may all be used.

Surgeries:

  • Axillary Lymph Node Dissection
  • Breast Surgeries
  • Breast Conservative Surgeries
  • Modified Radical Mastectomy
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection
  • Breast Reconstruction

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