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Cancer Diagnose & Treatment

Cervical Cancer

About the disease

What Happens In Cervical Cancer?

The cervix is the lowermost section of the uterus and is home to a malignant tumour. PAP smear screening and the HPV vaccine can prevent a malignant tumour of the lower region of the uterus (womb). Bleeding between periods and after sexual intercourse is a common symptom. Low backache or lower stomach pain may also develop, as well as a foul-smelling white discharge. There may be no symptoms of cervical cancer in some cases.


Causes

The sexually transmitted human papillomavirus is responsible for the majority of cervical cancer cases (HPV). The virus that causes genital warts is the same one that causes this. There are over 100 distinct HPV strains. Cervical cancer is caused by only a few varieties. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the two most frequent kinds that cause cancer.

Cervical cancer is not inevitable if you are infected with a cancer-causing strain of HPV. The vast majority of HPV infections are cleared by your immune system within two years.


Symptoms

Many women with cervical cancer are unaware that they have it until it has progressed to the point where symptoms appear. When symptoms do occur, they’re frequently misdiagnosed as menstrual cycles or urinary tract infections (UTIs). Symptoms of cervical cancer include:

  • Bleeding that is unusual, such as between cycles, after intercourse, or after menopause
  • Vaginal discharge that is unusual in appearance or fragrance
  • Pelvic pain is a common ailment
  • Increased and painful urination

Diagnosis

  • Pap Smear: Broader adoption of the Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) and high-risk HPV testing is the most significant advancement in cervical cancer screening. A Pap smear is a test that is performed as part of a woman’s regular pelvic exam. Your doctor extracts cells from the surface of your cervix, which are examined under a microscope by a technician. If anything unusual is found, your doctor will perform a biopsy on a small piece of cervical tissue.
  • Colposcopy: A colposcopy is similar to a pelvic examination. If a Pap smear reveals atypical cells, your doctor may use it. They use a nontoxic dye or acetic acid to stain your cervix, making it easier to see the cells. Then they seek for odd cells to biopsy with a colposcope, which magnifies your cervix by eight to fifteen times. This treatment is normally performed in the office of your gynaecologist. If the colposcopy reveals symptoms of invasive cancer, you may need another biopsy.
  • LEEP: Your doctor uses an electrified loop of wire to extract a sample of tissue from your cervix during the loop electrosurgical excision technique (LEEP). This might be in your gynecologist’s office.
  • Conization: While you’re under anaesthesia, your doctor can do a conization (removal of a portion of your cervix) in the operating room. A LEEP, a scalpel (cold knife conization), or a laser might be used. You can usually go home the same day because these are outpatient operations.

Diagnosis

  • Pap Smear: Broader adoption of the Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) and high-risk HPV testing is the most significant advancement in cervical cancer screening. A Pap smear is a test that is performed as part of a woman’s regular pelvic exam. Your doctor extracts cells from the surface of your cervix, which are examined under a microscope by a technician. If anything unusual is found, your doctor will perform a biopsy on a small piece of cervical tissue.
  • Colposcopy: A colposcopy is similar to a pelvic examination. If a Pap smear reveals atypical cells, your doctor may use it. They use a nontoxic dye or acetic acid to stain your cervix, making it easier to see the cells. Then they seek for odd cells to biopsy with a colposcope, which magnifies your cervix by eight to fifteen times. This treatment is normally performed in the office of your gynaecologist. If the colposcopy reveals symptoms of invasive cancer, you may need another biopsy.
  • LEEP: Your doctor uses an electrified loop of wire to extract a sample of tissue from your cervix during the loop electrosurgical excision technique (LEEP). This might be in your gynecologist’s office.
  • Conization: While you’re under anaesthesia, your doctor can do a conization (removal of a portion of your cervix) in the operating room. A LEEP, a scalpel (cold knife conization), or a laser might be used. You can usually go home the same day because these are outpatient operations.


Treatment

Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are all options for treatment.

Surgeries:

  • Hysterectomy
  • Cryosurgery
  • Cervicectomy
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
  • Lymph Node Dissection

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