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Fissure in Ano

An anal fissure is a tiny rip or cut in the anus lining, which can cause intense discomfort and some bright red bleeding.
About the disease

What Is
Fissure In Ano?

An anal fissure is a tiny rip or cut in the anus lining. During and after bowel motions, the skin fracture causes intense discomfort and some bright red bleeding. The fissure might sometimes be deep enough to expose the muscle tissue beneath it. An anal fissure is usually not a life-threatening condition. Constipation is a common condition in infants and young children, thus it can affect anyone of any age. The tear usually heals on its own within four to six weeks. It’s called chronic when the fissure lasts longer than eight weeks.


fissure in ano

Causes

Trauma to the anus and anal canal can result in anal fissures. One or more of the following factors may contribute to the trauma:

  • Constipation that has been there for a long time.
  • Straining to pass stool, particularly if the stool is large, hard, and/or dry.
  • Diarrhea that persists.
  • Anal stretching and anal sex
  • Foreign things are inserted into the anus.

Other than trauma, there are other causes as well:

  • Constipation for long time
  • Anal sphincter muscles that are too tight or spastic.
  • Anorectal scarring is a type of scarring that occurs in the anorectal area.
  • There’s a medical issue that needs to be addressed.
  • Blood flow to the anorectal region is reduced.

Symptoms

The following are signs and symptoms of an anal fissure:

  • Pain for a long time following a bowel movement.
  • Constipation.
  • Blood outside stool Blood on toilet tissue
  • The anus or anal canal has a noticeable crack or tear.
  • Itching and burning, which may be painful.
  • Urination discomfort, frequent urination, or inability to urinate.
  • Discharge with a foul odour.

fissure in ano

Diagnosis

An anal fissure can usually be diagnosed by inspecting the area around the anus. They may, however, wish to conduct a rectal examination to confirm the diagnosis. An anoscope may be inserted into your rectum during this exam to help the doctor see the tear more clearly. This medical device is a thin tube that doctors use to examine the anal canal. Your doctor may use an anoscope to look for other reasons of anal or rectal pain, such as haemorrhoids. In some situations of rectal pain, an endoscopy may be required to further assess your symptoms.

Diagnosis

An anal fissure can usually be diagnosed by inspecting the area around the anus. They may, however, wish to conduct a rectal examination to confirm the diagnosis. An anoscope may be inserted into your rectum during this exam to help the doctor see the tear more clearly. This medical device is a thin tube that doctors use to examine the anal canal. Your doctor may use an anoscope to look for other reasons of anal or rectal pain, such as haemorrhoids. In some situations of rectal pain, an endoscopy may be required to further assess your symptoms.


Treatment

The majority of anal fissures do not necessitate substantial treatment. Certain home remedies, on the other hand, can aid in the healing process and ease unpleasant symptoms. An anal fissure can be treated at home by:

  • Stool softeners sold over-the-counter Increasing your fluid intake.
  • Taking fibre supplements and eating more fibrous foods, such as raw fruits and vegetables, are two ways to improve your fibre intake.
  • To relax the anal muscles, reduce discomfort, and enhance blood flow to the anorectal area, take a sitz bath.
  • Using a nitroglycerin ointment to increase blood flow or a hydrocortisone lotion, such as Cortizone 10, to reduce inflammation.
  • To reduce discomfort, apply topical pain medications to the anus, such as lidocaine.

If your symptoms don’t go away after two weeks of medication, consult your doctor for a second opinion. Your doctor can confirm that you have the accurate diagnosis and suggest other therapies.

  • Ointment– The sphincter muscles can be relaxed with a calcium channel blocker ointment, allowing the anal fissure to heal.
  • Botox injections– injections into the anal sphincter are another option for treatment. The injections will temporarily paralyse your anus muscle, preventing spasms. This helps the anal fissure to heal while also limiting the formation of additional fissures.
  • Sphincterotomy– Your doctor may propose an anal sphincterotomy if your anal fissure does not respond to conventional treatments. A tiny incision in the anal sphincter is used to relax the muscle during this surgical operation. The anal fissure heals when the muscle is relaxed.
  • Low-fiber diets and constipation aren’t the only causes of anal fissures. Fissures that aren’t healing properly or that aren’t in the posterior or midline of your anus could suggest an underlying problem.
  • Whether you have any worries about a fissure that isn’t mending despite your best efforts, consult your doctor to see if any extra tests are required.

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