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Piles

Piles are inflammatory tissue aggregates in the anal canal.
About the disease

What Happens In Piles?

Hemorrhoids are sometimes known as piles. Hemorrhoids are inflammatory tissue aggregates in the anal canal. Blood veins, support tissue, muscle, and elastic fibres are all present.
In the anal area, piles are inflammatory and bloated clumps of tissue. They come in a variety of sizes and can be either internal or external. Internal piles are the most common form and are usually found between 2 and 4 centimetres (cm) above the anus opening. External piles appear on the anus’s outside margin.


piles

Causes

Increased pressure in the lower rectum causes piles. Under strain, the blood vessels around the anus and in the rectum expand and swell or bulge, producing piles. This could be as a result of:

  • Constipation that lasts a long time.
  • Diarrhea is a common ailment
  • Heavily lifting weights.
  • Pregnancy.
  • When passing faeces, squeezing the intestines.
  • The proclivity to form piles can be hereditary and worsens with age.

piles


Symptoms

The symptoms of piles are usually not serious. After a few days, they usually resolve on their own. The following are some of the signs and symptoms of piles:

  • Around the anus, a firm, possibly painful lump may be felt. It could have coagulated blood in it. Blood-filled piles are known as thrombosed external haemorrhoids.
  • A person with piles may have the sensation that their bowels are still full after passing a stool.
  • After a bowel movement, bright crimson blood is evident.
  • Itchy, red, and painful skin surrounds the anus.
  • During the passing of a stool, pain develops.

Piles can quickly become a serious problem. This can include things like:

  • Anemia may develop as a result of excessive anal haemorrhage.
  • Infection.
  • Inability to regulate bowel motions, also known as faecal incontinence.
  • A new channel is developed between the surface of the skin near the anus and the inside of the anus in an anal fistula.
  • A strangulated hemorrhoid is one in which the hemorrhoid’s blood supply is cut off, resulting in infection or a blood clot.

Diagnosis

Following a physical examination, a doctor may usually identify piles. They’ll look at the anus of the person suspected of having piles. A digital rectal examination (DRE) or a proctoscope may be used to diagnose internal piles. A proctoscope is a hollow tube with a light attached to it. It permits the doctor to get a close look at the anal canal. They can extract a little sample of tissue from the rectum. This can then be forwarded to a laboratory for testing. If the person with piles has signs and symptoms that imply another digestive system disease, or if they have any risk factors for colorectal cancer, the doctor may recommend a colonoscopy.

Diagnosis

Following a physical examination, a doctor may usually identify piles. They’ll look at the anus of the person suspected of having piles. A digital rectal examination (DRE) or a proctoscope may be used to diagnose internal piles. A proctoscope is a hollow tube with a light attached to it. It permits the doctor to get a close look at the anal canal. They can extract a little sample of tissue from the rectum. This can then be forwarded to a laboratory for testing. If the person with piles has signs and symptoms that imply another digestive system disease, or if they have any risk factors for colorectal cancer, the doctor may recommend a colonoscopy.


Treatment

Medicines:
There are several pharmacological treatments available to help a person with piles control their symptoms.

Corticosteroids– These can help with pain and inflammation.

OTC– OTC (over-the-counter) drugs are those that can be purchased over-the-counter or online. Pain relievers, ointments, lotions, and pads are among the medications that can help relieve redness and swelling around the anus.

Although over-the-counter medicines do not cure piles, they can help with the symptoms. They should not be used for more than 7 days in a row because they can irritate the area and cause skin thinning. If a medical practitioner recommends it, do not take two or more medications at the same time.

Laxatives– If a person with piles experiences constipation, the doctor may prescribe laxatives. These can make it easier to pass faeces and relieve pressure on the lower colon.

Surgery:
Approximately one out of every ten persons with piles will require surgery.

Sclerotherapy– It is a treatment that involves injecting medicine into the hemorrhoid to get it to shrink. The hemorrhoid shrinks over time. This is a good option for banding for haemorrhoids in grades II and III.

Hemorrhoidectomy– Surgical removal of the extra tissue that is causing the bleeding. This can be accomplished in a variety of methods, including using a local anaesthetic with sedation, a spinal anaesthetic, or a general anaesthetic. This procedure is the most successful for entirely eradicating piles, but it comes with a risk of problems such as bowel obstruction and urinary tract infections.

Banding– The doctor wraps an elastic band around the pile’s base, cutting off its blood supply. The hemorrhoid will go out within a few days. This treatment is beneficial for all haemorrhoids that aren’t grade IV.

Hemorrhoid stapling– Blood flow to the hemorrhoid tissue is restricted by hemorrhoid stapling. Hemorrhoidectomy is frequently more unpleasant than this operation. However, this surgery increases the risk of hemorrhoid recurrence and rectal prolapse, which occurs when part of the rectum pushes through the anus.

Infrared coagulation– It is often known as infrared laser coagulation, is a procedure that involves burning hemorrhoid tissue using a device. Hemorrhoids in grades I and II are treated with this method.

While piles can be unpleasant and debilitating, they rarely offer a long-term health risk and can usually be self-managed up to grade III or IV. If a problem arises, such as a fistula, the situation might quickly deteriorate.


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